This Baltic nation, home of some 1.3 million citizens, is one of the most ‘connected’ countries in the world and is ranked 15th in the UN e-Government Readiness Index (EDGI).
Over the years, its government has developed a citizen-oriented culture and the infrastructure -physical and digital- to make the best use of it. As an example, more than 90% of Estonians declare their taxes online and use the internet for their everyday banking transactions. Additionally, all Estonian schools are connected to the internet.
In 2002, Estonia implemented a national ID card system which forms the basis of its widely used e-governance infrastructure. More than 90% of the voting-age population holds an ID card, which includes a digital signature, which permits the citizen to sign electronic transactions to provide proof of authenticity.
Today, approximately 80% of the population, aged 16-74 use the internet and a similar percentage of households have internet access at home.
Estonia drafted the legal framework to conduct internet voting in 2002, and only three years later online-voting became a reality.